Southeast Europe Startup Report 2017

EIT Digital together with Slovenian-based innovation partner, ABC Accelerator, has published the first-ever South-East Europe Startup Report.

The report depicts in detail the most promising Startups and Scaleups of the region and the state of the innovation ecosystem in 8 countries (Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania).


The startup ecosystem in Southeast Europe (SEE) is alive and well. In all eight countries of the region, there are startups, supporting institutions, interesting technology, and founders with an ambitious mindset believing that even in this part of Europe, globally successful companies can be created. In 2017, there was evidence that this is indeed the case. Outfit7, a family entertainment company with Slovenian founders and pioneer in the field of digital entertainment, has been sold for 1 billion USD  to a Chinese investor in January, thus becoming the first unicorn in the region. It might not be the last

  • companies like Celtra (SLO), Rimac (CRO), NSoft (Bih) and Nordeus (SRB) are increasing their valua- tions fast, joining partnerships with high-profile corporations, and planning for potential IPO’s.

These companies also act as focal points in their local communities/ecosystems. Inspired by Norde- us’s success, the nascent mobile gaming industry has started to develop in Belgrade, Serbia. Similarly, NSoft is supporting the development of the local startup ecosystem in BiH. Zemanta, the pioneer in digital marketing, has arguably spurred the development of the whole startup community in Ljubljana, Slovenia, after its establishment a decade ago. In addition to providing direct support, these companies have motivated and inspired an entire generation of entrepreneurs and promoted startups as a potential career choice to young professionals with global ambitions. These startup pioneers are still guiding the way forward.

Zemanta has been acquired by the global leader in its industry, Outbrain from Israel. Additionally, Rimac has raised money from its most important partner, the global leader in electric battery supplies from China, which is also its potential exit partner. The frame (SRB) has raised a 16 million USD round from Bain capital and Microsoft. Partnering with the global leaders in their strategy to succeed – and to exit. Successful exits seem to be the next step in the development of the local ecosystem and its leading companies. These will help to spawn the next generation of regional startups. When successful, an exit can bring new strategic partners, significant amounts of new money, forming the basis for the next round of investments, and experienced founders that want to repeat their success story.

The next generation of startups in the region will be more experienced, better funded, and faster. They will aim for global success from their inception. A series of successful Initial Coin Offerings (ICO) by this new generation of Slovenian startups has raised more funding in 2017 than the total combined value of public financial support in the whole region – in the last decade. These startups are now among the global tech leaders and have turned Slovenia into a hub for blockchain technologies, and an example for ICO startups in the SEE region. Other industries are sometimes less well known, but no less funded or ambitious. Seven Bridges (SRB) is a three-time Bio-IT World Best of Show winner that has raised 50 million USD to transform biomedical data companies, and Genialis (SLO) follows in similar footsteps.

While the regional startups’ ambition and potential are not in doubt, they could use more support. Regional governments are often unable to support these financially or simply lack knowledge about how to

do it best. Moreover, the lack of equity (the ‘equity gap’) for seed- and early-stage financing is especially detrimental for the development of regional startups and impacts their survival rate. Additionally, the lack of national cooperation is worsened with significant obstacles to travel, especially in terms of visa requirements. Most importantly, however, potential founders in the region need to believe that they can create globally successful companies – and convince others to follow them on their path. Recent successes are the best growth drivers the SEE region could hope for.

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Investors say: “Good teams never become out of date…”

It is commonly thought that in the Balkan region future entrepreneurs do not lack of ideas but of funds… 

In fact, several Accelerators have funds to invest in the region, also almost every country in this area has an Angel Network and a couple of Venture Capital Funds also are active in the Balkans. At a closer look we can notice that the region does not lack funds, should we think the opposite also for the idea part of the statement?

In less than 8 months, a Venture Fund comes in Albania twice, this time to invest. During the Global Entrepreneurship Week in November, a week full of activities to support the entrepreneurship ecosystem all over the globe, and Tirana as well, for two days you could have met them at Oficina. The team of three, led by Mrs. Tatiana Zabasu, the Managing Partner of South Central Ventures, supported also by Swiss EP, met with several actors and listened to the pitches of 11+ startups. During one of the breaks, Mrs. Zabasu was very kind to give an interview.

  • Can you describe South Central Ventures in 50 or less words?

SCV is a team of professionals managing the largest early-stage fund in the Balkans, the Enterprise Innovation Fund. The fund has been operating since early September 2015 and is focusing on tech companies with high growth potential, coming from the Balkans. We are a team of 9, operating from their offices in Zagreb, Belgrade, and Skopje. The core team has been active in VC investing for more than 10 years, and during this time we gained valuable experience and knowledge of the start-up ecosystems in the region.

  • How can Albanian Entrepreneurs benefit from SCV Fund?

Albania is one of the seven countries SCV focuses on, and although we do not have an office here, we are trying to do our best to screen the Albanian start-ups and promote the fund among them. We are primarily looking for early and early growth stage investment opportunities, but also have an allocation for seed investments. There is no specific procedure for raising funds from SCV; start-ups just need to get in touch with us and present what they are doing. If we find a business interesting, we’ll definitely get back to them and discuss the opportunity further. For a start-up, getting an investment should bring more than just money – access to our network of investors, entrepreneurs, potential partners… We can in some cases “open the door” to larger established companies, and help young teams with our experience and knowledge.

  • What kind of Startups is SCV looking to invest in?

We are focused on tech companies, in their widest definition. Nowadays, most industries are changing due to new technologies, and we are looking for companies that know how to apply novelties in a variety of areas – from agriculture to medical products. What we need to see is the potential to grow, thus we are seeking teams with global aspirations, the ones that look beyond the borders of their country and its immediate neighbors.  We want to help start-ups to expand in new markets and grow, so what we are looking for is interesting, scalable products/services developed by good teams, which are operating in growing, potentially large markets. We look for teams that can “make it big”.

  • What does it take for a Startup Team to impress you? What are the things you do look in these teams?

Well, first they need to convince us that they know what they are doing and why they are doing it. Solving a big pain of a group of people, or creating an opportunity to improve the way things are done or general well-being of people. They need to present the opportunity for growth and explain why they are the ones who will seize it and win the market. We need to see the determination, passion, and persistence, as we all know a life of an entrepreneur is oftentimes not easy, and there are ups and downs to persevere.  Without passion and persistence, that is very hard. Plus of course experience, domain knowledge…

  • Except of the financial part, what other perks can a startup team get from an investment of SCV?

For one thing, raising an investment means you’ve managed to convince a group of people that there is potential and that you are the ones taking advantage of this potential. This may help you with building trust with your partners, clients, people you’d like to see on your team… It sorts of contributes to your credibility. It gives you access to a wider network – of investors, potential customers, maybe an investor can help you get a meeting with a large company you otherwise wouldn’t have the access to. Through the network, also the pool of knowledge you can tap into is much larger, which can be really important and beneficial in any stage, but particularly in the early stage, when most likely your team is not complete and there are “holes” you need to fill. Also, sometimes it may be just good to have someone monitoring your startup more objectively; as your business is “your baby” you tend to see things differently than someone who looks at it with less emotion. Not to mention that when deciding between different options, you can discuss possibilities with someone who has probably seen companies in a situation similar to yours and may be able to give you good advice.

  • Comparing the two concepts that often are misunderstood in our region, Idea/Product and Team, which one is the most important based on an investor point of view?

They are both important, although I’d say we pay a bit more attention to the team. A great team can always improve the product or pivot it or adapt to the changes in the market. Every product needs to be sold at some point if you want to make a good business, and even if the product is not perfect, a good team will be able to get some value from it. On the contrary, you may have a perfect product, but if you are not addressing the right customer segment in the right way, or if you have no one to sell it, it will be difficult to win. Plus, the product if not developed further and tailored to market needs may become obsolete. Good teams never become obsolete…

  • What advice would you give to a first-time entrepreneur or a young startup?

Once you define what and why you want to achieve, get the market feedback as soon as possible. Adjust based on that feedback and then work hard to “make it happen”. It sounds very simple, but we all know it is not.

Vasken Spiru

Digital Media Content Coordinator Swiss Entrepreneurship Programme

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Iain Bennett: We can’t expect to directly replicate a model from the US.

Probably you have noticed that after a very active month (February) on March has been a little quiet. The truth is that I, and the Albanian Entrepreneurial Ecosystem, have been fully immersed in three weeks of workshops and meetings with international experts for Mentoring, Ecosystems, Accelerator Programs and Business Models brought to Albania by the Swisscontact SECO Entrepreneurship Programme as part of its mission to build a self-sustainable ecosystem.

The first week of March was kicked off with three Major Events for mentors and accelerators/incubators of our ecosystem. Mike DuckerJ.E. Austin expert for Ecosystems and Mentoring introduced the benefits of mentoring to mentors and accelerators. He also worked with the actors that want to build a mentor pool for their activities in another workshop and a series of individual meetings.

Also, Iain Bennett, an expert from the UK, was in Tirana during the same time. He focused on supporting accelerators/incubators and other actors to improve their business models and accelerator programs.

Impressed by his in-depth experience from the London Startup Ecosystem and his long professional career focused on Accelerators I asked him some questions to have a better understanding of the stage our young ecosystem is in and what we should do in order to make it grow faster and work better.

Iain, after two weeks and two workshops and lots of individual sessions with key startup ecosystem actors in Albania, how would you describe the state of the ecosystem?

The ecosystem is in an earlier stage of development than had been assumed by many of the actors!

Actors had assumed that there was an idea of a startup culture based on the Silicon Valley model. We now recognize there is a need to go back a step to scope what capability, capacity, expertise, and experience exists both in ICT and in awareness of enterprise as an opportunity for growth and jobs.

We can’t expect to directly replicate a model from the US and other developed economies. We need to understand better what can grow in Albanian soil.

What do you see as the key strengths and weaknesses of existing accelerators/incubators?


  • ​Some past commercial experience in some of the accelerator managers
  • A desire to make it work
  • Some great environments
  • (In most cases) willingness to work together


  • ​No track record
  • Hardly any direct experience of managing an accelerator or incubator environment
  • Overall lack of market awareness, particularly of high growth sectors and the barriers to entry to those market opportunities
  • Lack of sector experience in a number of cases
  • Inadequate horizon scanning of the prospects for: start up; ICT; the digital economy in Albania
  • Inadequate planning; in particular, lack of market research into demand for acceleration
  • No structured customer relationship management at any level (clients, multipliers such as Universities and employers in the sector, mentors, investors)
  • No defined programme for the businesses
  • Lack of data on the liquidity of the market: are there investors and purchasers in Albania/the region for the type of startups the accelerators are looking for? What kinds of valuations have other companies in the region achieved? Is there anything to support the idea that international investors already have, or may be attracted to establish, a presence in the Albanian market? Without this knowledge, the idea of seed capital is meaningless.
  • Lack of effective risk management strategies – very closely linked to the point above – how would the accelerators themselves or other investors be able with any certainty to know if their portfolio had any value? If there is no prospect of investment or M&A, what kind of multiples of turnover and profit would make an accelerator sustainable on the basis that it would continue to be a shareholder and receive dividends? Are there other risks associated with maintaining holdings over a longer period?
  • Poor marketing plans – indistinct value propositions + lack of research = likely failure

Where do you see opportunities for the accelerators/incubators in Albania?

If ICT is viewed as an enabler, and not an end in itself, the digital economy can drive the transformation of Albania’s service sector. Projects that target collaboration and research between digital startups and people and teams with domain-specific experience and expertise in administration, communications, distribution, logistics, manufacturing, retail, etc could work on a number of levels:

First of all, it could increase efficiency and productivity through tools and platforms offering to improve control, measurement, and management information of existing processes.

You may identify some companies that can disrupt inefficient ‘legacy’ providers and fine online substitutes or complements for existing vertical markets that are poorly served (eg Amazon and booksellers).

In some cases, finding solutions to the specific barriers that confront Albanian businesses looking to scale up may provide solutions for many other markets at a similar stage of development, or help identify solutions that may not be so pressing in other contexts. For example, the call center industry, whilst successful, is currently far down in the value chain of the industries it serves, and often foreign-owned, reducing its net impact on the Albanian economy as a whole. If intelligent agents can be designed that overcome challenges imposed by the large number of different ‘natural’ languages used by people in the region, this could not only offer a cheaper substitute in this market but also create commercial value that could be reinvested to use the natural language of call center operators more productively. The resulting solutions could also offer the export potential to other developing markets where the cost of providing customer service in a multitude of ‘natural’ languages is a brake on the growth of other service industries – eg Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa.

Based on your recent experiences with the accelerators/incubators in Albania, what are your predictions on the further development of the startup ecosystem in Albania?

I’m not in the business of making predictions. I am making a case for change. If the current actors don’t change there will not be any further development: without intervention and restructuring, there will continue to be insufficient demand for the product as currently configured.

What actions would you suggest to the actual actors to take in order to expand the actual small community in Albania into a much larger ‘startup’ community?

I pretty much answer this in my responses to (2) and (3) but to sum up:

​In order to properly scope and interpret the true scale of the opportunity, first think about how the transformation of the digital economy could disrupt and transform other sectors of the Albanian economy to result in much higher levels of productivity, growth, jobs, and entrepreneurship.

The outcomes are likely to occur in the order described above –  clear examples of how investment of knowledge, time, and money into new digital startups are needed to drive increased demand for accelerator/incubator support.

Encourage entrepreneurs to think about the transferability of anything you do: to adjacent territories, adjacent markets, or other territories or markets that share characteristics and barriers to those addressed by your product.

In the process, you will crystallize the opportunity to make Albania a ‘living lab’ for the design and testing of global solutions, taking advantage of what will hopefully be a short-term window in which you are a low-cost and low-wage economy.

Don’t limit your recruitment focus to undergraduates: successful entrepreneurs can be drawn from all parts of society, and need to if the economy is going to grow. Think about which of your current employees and interns can be mentored to try a startup. Get to kids in high schools before they are captured by the institutionalized thinking of their University lecturers. Participate in wider and more imaginative outreach in cities and towns outside Tirana.

Design programs that are attractive to a wider group of sponsors and clients – whether they offer solutions to specific problems in other industries, or speak to the CSR ambitions of (particularly) foreign direct investors in, or looking to enter, Albania.

Get some better data about the number and value of investments and M&A activity in early-stage companies in Albania in general, including those in ICT, and if possible the wider SE European region. Without it, you can’t with any authority establish the valuation of any of the companies in the ecosystem from time to time. There are very few institutional investors, and even fewer private investors prepared to act on that basis. No investors = no deals = no sustainability.

If there really is no existing evidence or culture of investment, and there is insufficient risk capital or public funding available to cover your operational losses the 5-10 years it may take to challenge the status quo, don’t be afraid to think the unthinkable – about how the sector might be bootstrapped in its entirety, or whether this is just not an activity that can take root in Albanian soil.

Initiate and publish research that demonstrates what Government could do that could really help build a tech sector – even if that is just to discourage it from investing in programs and facilities that duplicate existing activity and diminish the return on the private sector or donor investments.

Continue to think of yourself as one team and promote the entire package – you have a competitive advantage in your openness, your lovely surroundings, welcoming personality, great food, and a host of other benefits that have yet to be drawn to the attention of entrepreneurs and investors across the world. If there isn’t demand (yet) for startups in Albania, and the Government remains unresponsive or obstructive, could you bridge the gap with foreign private investment coming in to take advantage of Albania as a low cost, low wage but well-educated environment with great and widespread language skills, in particular English and Italian?

Keep in touch with me and with other international actors as part of your horizon scanning and market awareness – you’ll find people are glad to share their knowledge and contacts.

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In Albania, Tech Attempts to De-Balkanize the Balkans

On a balmy, spring evening in Tirana, around three dozen Albanian entrepreneurs are sat in a room of the same building where secretaries once committed communist government files to the software. The presentation they’re about to see might just be their best-ever chance at funding. The visitor: South Central Ventures, a recently-assembled fund that’s based in Belgrade, Skopje, and Zagreb. €40 million of public and private money is on offer for early-stage injections, managing partner Tatjana Zabasu tells the audience. It’s a chance to bring Balkan tech together.

Few in the room, part of the public/private Protik ICT Resource Center, are under any illusions: these are early – very early – days for the tech community in Albania. Indeed as more than one entrepreneur will tell me that evening, the whole crowd is barely three years old. But some success stories are beginning to appear in the small country. And, perhaps more excitingly, they could be a chance to cross borders that, for decades, were shut tighter than any others on Earth.

Albania is a small, kidney-shaped country at the foot of the Balkans, located in Southeastern Europe. It has a population of just under three million, and a GDP per capita barely prodding at $5,000, aligning it with similarly developing neighbors like Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Kosovo.

But while those countries became part of Yugoslavia in the aftermath of World War Two, Albania fell into deep isolation, at the behest of its Marxist-Leninist dictator Enver Hoxha. His regime banned religion, beards, and almost all foreign travel. So afraid of ‘revisionist’ outside influences was Hoxha, that he had 750,000 machine-gun pillboxes erected all around Albania. They are still to be seen today – beside roads, places of worship, and even public parks.

While people across the rest of the Balkans received traditionally high technical training under Yugoslav, or Soviet, rule, Albania remained an educational backwater. Early human rights successes, like gender equality and healthcare, were squandered from the 1960s on as Hoxha severed ties with all of his communist allies. By the time his Party of Labour fell, in 1992, Albania was Europe’s poorest nation.

Almost a quarter of a century on and the legacies of the isolationist rule are still evident, despite stabler politics in recent years. In fewer places is it felt more acutely as in SME development, which requires not only an injection of cash and tax breaks but a complete cultural shift.

“We have this way of learning where students are passive – there are no labs,” Vasken Spiru, a local ecosystem facilitator, tells me. “With coding, it’s like trying to write Java on a blackboard.”

“It comes out of a society where the majority of young people still wants to go and work for the state,” Jakob Modeér, a Swedish-born but longtime Balkan-based expert, tells me. “If you come from Britain or the U.S. it’s almost amusing. It’s clearly in the mind of people and their parents that state employment offers you stability.”

Modeér is Spiru’s colleague at swisscontact, whose SECO Entrepreneurship Program is trying to raise interest in startups and entrepreneurialism across the region. That we meet at a trendy café in The Block, a district of Tirana famed for its past as the hermetically-sealed neighborhood of Hoxha and his closest confidantes, is poignant. Today The Block is a vibrant, variegated humdrum of bars, restaurants and hotels. If The Block can change so quickly, Modeér asks, why can’t Albania?

“If you’re not a critical person, you don’t see problems. If you don’t see problems, that’s what a startup is all about,” he adds. “These are things that don’t come easily in such a hierarchical society. We need to break it down a bit. You do that with smaller groups – there’s no big bang.”

Neither is there a problem with space. Whole swathes of central Tirana, including some of its most famous communist-era buildings, lay eerily empty today. Even the Protik building, with its vast history and modern tenants, lays half-bare, its top floor empty aside from a blackboard, on which tech buzzwords are scrawled. “No,” Modeér says, frustrated, upon seeing what should soon be an accelerator. “We definitely don’t have a lack of space.”

Success stories are what Modeér, and Albania craves. Recently it got a few. is a discounts site founded by Laidi Ferruni, who recently launched Ireland-incorporated Quibli, an events marketplace., a real estate portal, was founded by young entrepreneur Tomi Kallanxhi, with just $400.

Beyond Albania’s borders, in ethnic-Albanian Kosovo, Gjirafa (‘Giraffe’) recently became the first Albanian-language search engine. Altogether it has raised $2.5 million, including sums from Prague-based Rockaway Capital and serial investor Esther Dyson. Founder Megrim Cahani, who spent 12 years in in New York City, tells me that finding a viable model was a conundrum.

“It was very difficult because there are two really big problems in the region – first is the region in terms of macroeconomic indicators – GDP overall is very low compared to developed markets,” he says. “Then there’s the population. It’s a very small market with tiny purchasing power. Plus the economy of Internet is not very developed.”

Web penetration in both countries is pretty good, however, with Kosovo at 88% and Albania around 75%. “We recognize that the market is small,” adds Cahani. “It’s small if you want to grow the product horizontally. But if you’re doing a few basically and you grow vertically, the market is big enough. We want to be the leader in news, advertising and e-commerce. We don’t have to be top-of-the-line Amazon to cut it.”

In total there are 12 million Albanian speakers in the Balkans and diaspora populations in North America and western Europe – not including millions of undocumented speakers in Turkey. Gjirafa recently hired ten more staff to add to its team of 22. An upcoming office in Tirana will accommodate ten more, with plans to move into Skopje, Macedonia’s capital, Slovenia and Prague. “Gjirafa can give Albanians services that are so basic elsewhere but not here. A lot of ten-year-old services still aren’t here yet.”

At the presentation in Tirana, Zabasu has turned her focus on the audience: what are the advantages of the Albanian scene, she asks. Developers’ wages can run very low, Ferruni says: “An average one could be just €200-300. Advertising is really, really cheap here too, so it’s easy to get to market and gain customers very fast.

“Even in Macedonia, which is right next to us, the cost-per-click can go up to a dollar,” he adds. “But here the average is just $0.02-03. So it’s really easy to gain traction.” Facebook penetration is also high in Albania, another person adds, at 1.3 million users. It’s a good platform for change.

The aforementioned lack of technically-skilled personnel is a problem, Modeér admits. But that drawback might actually be a chance to do things better, cooperatively: “If you’re set on the global market you will need resources. So here, you have to ask: which countries have coders and programmers? Some have more coders than marketers. Albania is very strong on marketing but it has no coders. We should think as a region.”

And that, it seems, is precisely what many in the local ecosystem are doing. SCV is looking at investing in Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Macedonia and Albania. And EU money from Bulgaria and Slovenia is beginning to sniff out talent in the region, too. Tirana itself boast several startup resources committed to looking beyond the country’s borders, such as Startup Grind; Oficina; GARAZH (‘Garage’); Talent Garden and Protik.

Balkan adroitness in second languages could provide another key opportunity for collaboration. Most Albanians speak excellent Italian (from Durrës it takes a night-ferry to get to Bari), while Kosovars, thanks to old family links, tend to speak good German. Other areas promote English, Russian and more.

“I think collaboration is key between Albania and the other nations in the region as we grow as a cluster together,” Erkens Gjini, Oficina’s Business Development Manager, tells me. “If we can identify our advantages and symbiotically use them, then we can challenge other nations and become a global factor.”

Neither Gjini nor any of the entrepreneurs I spoke to voiced concerns about dealing with Serbians, Macedonians, or any of the region’s other nationalities, whose dividing conflicts and enmities have coined the very term ‘Balkanism’ to mean the cleaving of deep ethnic, religious and political lines. Tempers often flare on a governmental level even now. But, adds Gjini, which is not replicated in the boardroom: “I have been to Serbia and have many friends who share the same idea. All this political propaganda is used to secure those votes from the ultra-nationalist, which do not represent the voice of the nation.”

After the event, I speak to Bashkim Sykja, Albanian director of entrepreneurship policy at the Ministry of Economy. He stresses Tirana’s encouragement of entrepreneurialism, and its opportunity to bridge old divides. “ICT helps the Balkans in terms of connectivity among the countries,” he says. “If we want local companies to become competitive in this global market, we must make sure ICT is considered one of the key sectors.”

That will help enthuse state institutions and banks to invest in startups, something Spiru admits is sorely lacking right now. “It’s a chicken-and-egg situation,” he says ruefully. “Why should the government invest when there are only a few startups here?” More money would spur investment in online payments, he adds, which would inspire a wave of e-commerce firms to set up shop – usually the first line in ecosystem development.

Working across borders will, above all, adjust local entrepreneurs to the global market and its requirements adds Modeér. He tells me about an accelerator that brought Kosovars from Skopje to Serbia without a hitch, before adding, “We can bring the Balkans together but through the startup community. The real mindset change will come when you start working for a German customer. Not your cousin down the street, who will make concessions on timescales and quality. A German will never do that. Quality, price, delivery time. Reality.”

Despite what they might tell you, the people of the Balkans share a huge amount of their customs and culture. Many national dishes, for example, share an Ottoman heritage, while similar adherences to Sunni Islam and Orthodox Christianity have swept up from empires from the south, west, and east for centuries.

There are legends, too, which have crossed borders. Take that of Muji and Halili, highlanders who, having drunk the milk of a fairy, challenged each other to lift and hurl boulders three miles away. A modern, post-communist Balkans may have endured a litany of wars, genocides, and political repressions. But finally, it appears a new regional generation is ready to band together, pick up the rock of industry together and hurl it as a globalized market.

“Everybody here has their competitive advantage,” Modeér adds. “This is grassroots, so it will win. It has to be from the bottom up, not from the top down. The only stability you will find is in the private sector.”

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